It was not until the 1800s that new strides were taken to set a new date line, but even then, authorities were skeptical about the use of such a line, especially since countries for a long time could not even agree on a common prime meridian. 2 Cultural Landscape- defined by Carl Sauer, it is the area of Earth modified by human The date line runs from the North Pole to the South Pole through the Pacific Ocean. THE INTERNATIONAL date line (IDL) is the imaginary line on Earth slicing through the center of the PACIFIC OCEAN that separates two consecutive calendar days. Comprehending time around the world depends on an understanding of both the geographic grid of latitude and longitude, and of Earth–Sun relations. 55 terms. Term. 9th Grade. The main protagonist, Phileas Fogg, travels eastward around the world. The international date line can be placed anywhere on the world, but it is most conveniently located 180 degrees from the prime or zero meridian, found at Greenwich, England. The circumnavigator's paradox was noted by explorers of some famous journeys, including in 1519 during the first circumnavigation of the globe led by Ferdinand Magellan and during Francis Drake's westward circumnavigation of the globe in 1577–80. The 15° gore that is offset from UTC by 12 hours is bisected by the nautical date line into two 7.5° gores that differ from UTC by ±12 hours. The crew was surprised, as they had recorded each day of the three-year journey without omission. Geography. For example, residents of the Jewish communities of Japan, New Zealand, Hawaii, and French Polynesia all observe Shabbat on local Saturday. The international date line also marks 180 degrees of longitude. The IDL circumscribes Kiribati by swinging far to the east, almost reaching the 150°W meridian. Map Scale: Definition. However, there is not unanimity as to how Jewish law reaches that conclusion. n. (Physical Geography) the line approximately following the 180° meridian from Greenwich on the east side of which the date is one day earlier than on the west. As a result, this atoll was renamed Millennium Island.. There are three hundred and sixty degrees on the circumference of the earth; and these three hundred and sixty degrees, multiplied by four minutes, gives precisely twenty-four hours—that is, the day unconsciously gained. During that period it was west of the IDL. However, the journey suffers a series of delays and when Fogg reaches London, it's 8:50 pm on Friday, 20 December, although he believes it's Saturday, 21 December and that he has lost the wager by a margin of only five minutes. Intervening opportunities (Definition too long, see Barrons for more) Created. It is the result of the 1917 Anglo-French Conference on Time-keeping at Sea, which recommended that all ships, both military and civilian, adopt hourly standard time zones on the high seas. Being 21 hours behind made business difficult because having weekends on backward days meant only four days of the week were shared workdays.. The need for a temporal discontinuity on the globe can be described mathematically as following from the Borsuk-Ulam Theorem in dimension 1: It is a topological fact that there does not exist any continuous, one-to-one function mapping from a circle onto an interval. Royal Naval Observatory. International Date Line. Level of detail and amount of area covered on a map: ... International Date Line: Definition. Strictly legal, the 1917 nautical IDL convention is still valid. This date line is implied but not explicitly drawn on time zone maps. Fogg had thought it was one day later than it actually was, because he had forgotten this simple fact. Tags: ... but human geography was first studied in the twentieth century. AP Human Geography.  The IDL on modern CIA maps now reflects the most recent shifts in the IDL (see § Historic alterations below). 3. The formation of the line has roots in a problem called the circumnavigator's paradox, in which travelers going westward would find upon returning home that one more day than they thought had elapsed, and eastward travelers found that they seemed to take one day less than they recorded upon reaching their destination. Today. an imaginary line that goes from the North Pole to the South Pole, to the east of which the date is one day later than it is to the west Examples from the Corpus International Date Line • The 113-year-old international date line was drawn arbitrarily and designed to avoid touching land. for, aphg chapter 6 review - ap human geography chapter 6 review 5. dialect chains 6. isogloss 7 ap human geography 40. hawaii is an example of state that is. The IDL crosses between the U.S. Aleutian Islands (Attu Island being the westernmost) and the Commander Islands, which belong to Russia. A two dimentional, or flat, representation of earth surface or a portion of it. One notable shift was the Philippine adjustment, where prior to the present position, the Philippine Islands had been to the east of the line. near both the equator and the International Date Line. Acrostic Poem On a piece of paper or in a Google Document, write a concept or term from this topic that you struggle with vertically on the page. Subject. near both the equator and the International Date Line. AP Human Geography: Maps/Projections. Categories Political Geography Tags geography trivia, international date line, political geography, Russia, United States. The first known mention of the circumnavigator's paradox was in the Taqwin al-Buldan, written by the Syrian prince-navigator Abu 'l-Fida between 1273 and 1331. These include portions of the Republic of Kiribati, including Millennium Island in the Line Islands, as well as Samoa during the southern summer. Tokelau is a territory of New Zealand north of Samoa whose principal transportation and communications links with the rest of the world pass through Samoa. When you cross the international date line heading east (toward america), the clock moves back 24 hours,or one entire day.  Western publications were generally unaware of this change until the early 1890s, so they erroneously gave the International Date Line a large western bulge for the next half century. Definition: An arc that for the most part follows 180° longitude, although it deviates in several places to avoid dividing land areas. Since Alaska moved to the eastern side of the International Date Line, the date also moved back to Friday, 18 October 1867, now known as Alaska Day.  To advance the calendar by one day, Tuesday, 31 December 1844 was removed from the calendar. International boundary synonyms, International boundary pronunciation, International boundary translation, English dictionary definition of International boundary. When you cross it going west toward Asia, you turn the clock forward 24 hours. In spite of its name, the IDL has no force in any international treaty, law, or agreement.  This approach is consistent with the principle of national and nautical time zones: the islands of eastern Kiribati are actually "islands" of Asian date (west side of IDL) in a sea of American date (east side of IDL). Level. Science of mapmaking: Term. Ferdinand Magellan claimed the Philippines for Spain on Saturday, 16 March 1521, having sailed westward from Seville across the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. ˌInternational ˈDate Line noun [ singular] SG. At the equinoxes, the first place to see daylight would be the uninhabited Millennium Island in Kiribati, which is the easternmost land located west of the IDL. Created by mbleffish. Term. A problem with the general rule above arises in certain Christian churches that solemnly observe a Sabbath day as a particular day of the week, when those churches are located in countries near the Date Line. In particular, the day for holding the Jumu'ah prayer appears to be local Friday everywhere in the world. American Samoa, the Cook Islands, Niue, and French Polynesia are east of the IDL and one day behind. 9 terms. Near the December solstice, the first places would be Antarctic research stations using New Zealand Time (UTC+13:00) during summer that experience midnight sun. , Alaska was on the western side of the International Date Line, since Russian settlers reached Alaska from Siberia. international date line A theoretical line following approximately the 180th meridian, the regions to the east of which are counted as being one day earlier in their calendar dates than the regions to the west. October, 1884. It is not a straight line, however. Sunday as observed in Tonga (West of the Date Line, as with Kiribati, Samoa, and parts of Fiji and Tuvalu) is considered by the Seventh-day Adventist Church to be the same day as Saturday observed East of the Date line.. Back by 24 hours upon crossing the International Date Line. When you go west (towards Asia), the calendar moves ahead one day). In human geography, a landscape analysis is a process of studying and describing a landscape, generally with the goal of assessing the impact of humans on that space. Because of that, Kwajalein used the Hawaiian date, so was effectively east of the International Date Line (unlike the rest of the Marshalls). Definition: A line that zigzags its way through the Pacific Ocean owing to the location of countries there. South of Kiribati, the IDL returns westwards but remains east of 180°, passing between Samoa and American Samoa.. Forward by one hour for every 15° of longitude crossed, and. When you go west (toward asia), the calendar moves ahead one day. It then bends southeast again to return to 180°. a boundary between basque is a good example of an. The IDL does not extend into Antarctica on the world time zone maps by the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) or the United Kingdom's Her Majesty's Nautical Almanac Office (HMNAO). Thus, whether it is Western Christmas or Orthodox Christmas, Christians in Samoa, immediately west of the Date Line, will celebrate the holiday a day before Christians in American Samoa, which is immediately east of the Date Line. the part of an area that forms its outer boundary; the line that separates one area, state, or country from another; periphery: They are building a … ... from Map to iNternational Date line 29 words. Verne explains: In journeying eastward he [Fogg] had gone towards the sun, and the days therefore diminished for him as many times four minutes as he crossed degrees in this direction. This date line can be called de facto since it is not based on international law, but on national laws. Geography. The line is also most convenient passing through only water, as was suggested by one of the early advocates of the new meridian, Erik de Put. by jf80_ Played 680 times. The date line curves around several landmasses. When you cross the International Date Line heading east (towards America) the clock moves back 24 hours, or one entire day. 22473567 Immediately to the left of the International Date Line (the date) is always one day ahead of the date (or day) immediately to the right of the International Date Line in the Western Hemisphere. 0 degrees longitude was fixed here. For that reason, Tokelau crossed the IDL along with Samoa in 2011. The nautical date line, not the same as the IDL, is a de jure construction determined by international agreement. Level 2 Geography: Its Nature and Perspectives Learn these words 105 ... International Date Line. Advanced Placement Human Geography (also known as AP Human Geo, AP Geography, APHG, AP HuGe, AP HuG, AP Human, or HGAP) is an Advanced Placement social studies course that studies human geography.The test is administered by College Board.. Land Ordinance Of 1785. For other uses, see, Samoan Islands and Tokelau (1892 and 2011), Date lines according to religious principles, Line-crossing ceremonies relating to the IDL. After the change, the IDL in effect moved eastwards to go around the entire country.  From this comes the utility and importance of UTC or "Z" ("Zulu") time: it permits a single universal reference for time that is valid for all points on the globe at the same moment. on 180 degrees longitude for the most part. This is to account for the many time zones around the world to make it easier for people to know what time it is in various countries and to keep days uniform based on … All nations unilaterally determine their standard time zones, applicable only on land and adjacent territorial waters. Level. International Date Line: Definition, History & Location 6:01 Distance, Site, Situation & Space-Time ... Upgrade to Premium to enroll in AP Human Geography: Exam Prep. Example: The exact location of the line may vary to take into account of other factors, like political boundaries. AP Human Geography Midterm Exam (Chapter 1 Test) DRAFT. In 1844, in order to facilitate the growth of these new trading and communication links, the American day reckoning was abolished in favor of the Asian day reckoning. AP Human Geography Outline Ch. , For individuals crossing the date line, the change of calendar date influences some aspects of practice under Jewish law. A 1994 realignment of the IDL made Caroline Island one of the first points of land on Earth to reach January 1, 2000, on the calendar (UTC+14:00). Most Seventh Day Adventists in Samoa planned to observe Sabbath on Sunday after Samoa's crossing the date line in December 2011, but SDA groups in Samatau village and other places (approx. For the two hours between 10:00 and 11:59 UTC each day, three different calendar dates are observed at the same time in different places on Earth. After sailing westward around the world from Spain, the expedition called at Cape Verde for provisions on Wednesday, 9 July 1522 (ship's time). Anglo-French Conference on Time-keeping at Sea, Seventh-day Adventist Church of Tonga § Date Line controversy, "Arctic Expeditions Commanded by Americans", "United States – Russian Maritime Boundary and Exclusive Economic Zones", "Kiribati's Caroline Island renamed Millennium Island", "Standard Time Zones of the World by the CIA", "Standard Time Zones by HM Nautical Almanac Office", "International Conference Held at Washington for the Purpose of Fixing a Prime Meridian and a Universal Day. Also called: date line. The Samoan Independent Seventh-day Adventist Church, which is not affiliated to the worldwide Seventh-day Adventist Church, has decided to continue worshiping on Saturday, after a six-day week at the end of 2011. 300 members) decided to accept the IDL adjustment and observe the Sabbath on Saturday. Ap Human Geography. In Tonga, Seventh Day Adventists (who usually observe Saturday, the seventh-day Sabbath) observe Sunday due to their understanding of the International Date Line, as Tonga lies east of the 180° meridian. When the UNITED STATES bought Alaska in 1867 the line was moved to the west of it. Total Cards. ... near the International Date Line and the prime meridian. International Date Line. West (Asia) the clock moves one day forward. The next day, however, it is revealed that the day is Saturday, not Sunday, and Fogg arrives at his club just in time to win the bet. AP Human Geography (Mr. Blevins Chapter 5 Test) at Apopka. The International Date Line itself doesn’t run in a straight line at the request of some Pacific Island nations, who would be split down the middle by the date line. , Kwajalein atoll, like the rest of the Marshall Islands, passed from Spanish to German to Japanese control during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. , The Samoan Islands, now divided into Samoa and American Samoa, were on the west side of the IDL until 1892. About This Quiz & Worksheet. As a consequence of the 1994 change, Kiribati's easternmost territory, the Line Islands, including the inhabited island of Kiritimati (Christmas Island), started the year 2000 before any other country, a feature the Kiribati government capitalized upon as a potential tourist draw. AP Human Geography Review. , As a practical matter, the conventional International Date Line—or another line in the Pacific Ocean close to it—serves as a de facto date line for purposes of Jewish law, at least in existing Jewish communities. These include Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, McMurdo Station, Scott Base and Mario Zucchelli Station.. To eliminate this anomaly, Kiribati introduced a change of date for its eastern half by removing Saturday, 31 December 1994 from its calendar.  But it was not until the introduction of improved transportation and communications systems in the 20th century that the question of an international date line truly became a question of practical Jewish law. International Date Line: An arc that for the most part follows 180 degrees longitude. 2 years ago. Forward by 24 hours upon crossing the International Date Line. Chapter 1 Exam AP Human Geography. Additionally, there are differences of opinion as to which day or days individual Jews traveling in the Pacific region away from established Jewish communities should observe Shabbat. The International Date Line is located at 180 degrees east or west of the Greenwich Meridian and is an imaginary line of longitude that differentiates between two different days. Subject. (See Ramadan § Beginning. Notwithstanding the difference in dates, the same sunrise happened over American Samoa as happens over Samoa a few minutes later, and the same sunset happens over Samoa as happened over American Samoa a few minutes earlier. ), The concept of an international date line in Jewish law is first mentioned by 12th-century decisors. Kwajalein returned to the west side of the IDL by removing Saturday, 21 August 1993 from its calendar. Ships are supposed to adopt the standard time of a country if they are within its territorial waters within 12 nautical miles (14 mi; 22 km) of land, then revert to international time zones (15° wide pole-to-pole gores) as soon as they leave. Government and commercial concerns on opposite sides of the line could only conduct routine business by radio or telephone on the four days of the week which were weekdays on both sides. In that year, King Malietoa Laupepa was persuaded by American traders to adopt the American date (three hours behind California) to replace the former Asian date (four hours ahead of Japan). Mostly follows 180’ longitude. As a result, there have been numerous changes in the location of the line in the past, and today the line is not straight but jagged, its line in some parts extending as far as the 150 degrees longitude line. As one side of the line is one calendar day ahead of the other side this could cause difficulties in travel, trade, and economic functions just to name a few. According to the clock, the first areas to experience a new day and a New Year are islands that use UTC+14:00. Unable to swim, the protagonist indulges in increasingly imaginative speculation regarding the physical, metaphysical and religious importance of the date line. Geography of the International Date Line. The international date line has not been static over time, its shift in time and place owing to local interests and political affiliations. The International Date Line (IDL) is an imaginary line of demarcation on the surface of Earth that runs from the North Pole to the South Pole and demarcates the change of one calendar day to the next. Because the world is split into many different time zones, the establishment of an International Date Line is beneficial to understanding how time is delineated. Because the Date Line was an arbitrary imposition, the question can arise as to which Saturday on either side of the Date Line (or, more fundamentally, on either side of 180 degrees longitude) is the "real" Saturday. More information... People also love these ideas Pinterest. You have elected to take a rigorous, college level course. Three of Colorado’s Wildfires are the Largest in Recorded History for the State. The IDL is roughly based on the meridian of 180° longitude, roughly down the middle of the Pacific Ocean, and halfway around the world from the Greenwich meridian. International Date Line: An arc that for the most part follows 180° longitude, although it deviates in several places to avoid dividing land areas. The concept behind the IDL (though not the IDL itself, which did not yet exist) appears as a plot device in Jules Verne's book Around the World in Eighty Days (1873). The conference resolved that the Universal Day, midnight-to-midnight Greenwich Mean Time (now known as Coordinated Universal Time, or UTC), which it did agree to, "shall not interfere with the use of local or standard time where desirable". 1. International Date Line Geography Map Dating Apps Cartography Finding Yourself Maps Time Zones Travel Tips Geography. When you cross the International Date Line heading east (toward America), the clock moves back 24 hours, or one entire day. 180° longitude, although it deviates in several places to avoid dividing land areas. 1 Thinking Geographically Key Issue 1: How do geographers describe where things are? AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY TERMS AND CONCEPTS. (Wrangel Island lies directly on the meridian at 71°32′N 180°0′E, also noted as 71°32′N 180°0′W. After Mexico gained its independence from Spain in 1821, Philippine trade interests turned to Imperial China, the Dutch East Indies and adjacent areas, so the Philippines decided to join its Asian neighbors on the west side of the IDL. let us write you a custom essay sample on. No international organization, nor any treaty between nations, has fixed the IDL drawn by cartographers: the 1884 International Meridian Conference explicitly refused to propose or agree to any time zones, stating that they were outside its purview. Geography: Its nature and perspectives. This was because Spanish travelers used to journey to the then-Spanish colony via South America, so it was convenient for them not to have to adjust their dates when they reached the PHILIPPINES. Be sure to use vocabulary from APHUG Unit 1 (see table above). Place: Definition. The problem also fascinated the world of fiction; the idea of gaining time going eastward was crucial for Jules Verne's fictional character Phileas Fogg in the classic Around the World in Eighty Days. AP Human Geography Ms. Devan Adams firstname.lastname@example.org AP Human Geography Summer Assignment [2018-2019] Welcome! He had bet with his friends that he could do it in 80 days. , The IDL is not a factor in the start and end of Islamic lunar months. The United States adopted its recommendation for U.S. military and merchant marine ships in 1920. Upon independence in 1979, it acquired the claim to the Phoenix and Line Islands, east of the IDL, from the United States. Human adaptation: • Environmental determinism: a 19 th- and early 20 th-century approach to the study of geography that argued that the general laws sought by human geographers could be found in the physical sciences. During the second hour (UTC 11:00–11:59) one of the calendar dates is limited to an uninhabited maritime time zone twelve hours behind UTC (UTC−12:00). Unit 1. These various deviations generally accommodate the political and/or economic affiliations of the affected areas. For this reason, some authorities rule that certain aspects of Sabbath observance are required on Sunday (in Japan and New Zealand) or Friday (in Hawaii and French Polynesia) in addition to Saturday. The change also applied to the other remaining Spanish colonies in the Pacific: the Mariana Islands, Guam and Caroline Islands. Longitude roughly represents the International Date Line. People traveling westward around the world must set their clocks: For anyone traveling eastward, they must set their clocks: Failing to do this would make their time inaccurate to the local time. Proceeding from north to south, the first deviation of the IDL from 180° is to pass to the east of Wrangel Island and the Chukchi Peninsula, the easternmost part of Russian Siberia. So, travel east across the International Date Line results in a day, or 24 hours being subtracted. This issue (which also arises in Judaism) is a particular problem for Seventh Day Adventists, Seventh Day Baptists, and similar churches located in countries near the Date Line. going east across it, turn clock 24 hours back. International Date Line. The farthest one can go on the longitude scale is 180 degrees. A law that divided much of the United States into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers. It passes through the middle of the Pacific Ocean, roughly following the 180° line of longitude but deviating to pass around some territories and island groups. Christmas for example, is celebrated on 25 December (according to either the Gregorian or the Julian calendar, depending upon which of the two is used by the particular church) as that date falls in countries located on either side of the Date Line. Accordingly, Samoa, Tokelau, Wallis and Futuna, Fiji, Tonga, Tuvalu, and New Zealand's Kermadec Islands and Chatham Islands are all west of the IDL and have the same date.  Instead, HMNAO labels island groups with their time zones, which do reflect the most recent IDL shifts. international date line a line that goes across the 180 degree line, that when you cross moves ahead or back a whole 24 hours. 9. Lithosphere: Earth's crust and a portion of the mantle directly below the crust: Location International Date Line. 24 zones that are 1000 miles apart from the other, each one is an hour before or after the one next to it, and by passing the International Date Line, you either go forward 24 hours or back 24 hours. International Date Line An arc that follows 180 longitude but avoids dividing land. , In 2011, Samoa shifted back to the west side of the IDL by removing Friday, 30 December 2011 from its calendar. Definition An arc that for the most part follows 180° longitude, although it deviates in several places to avoid dividing land areas. In other places, however, the IDL deviates east or west away from that meridian. The IDL now passes between Samoa and American Samoa, which remains on the east (American) side of the line. For example, at 10:15 UTC Thursday, it is 23:15 Wednesday in American Samoa (UTC−11:00), Thursday in most of the world, and 00:15 Friday in Kiritimati (UTC+14:00). The IDL then bends southwest to return to 180°. AP Human Geography Midterm Exam (Chapter 1 Test) DRAFT.  Samoa made the change because Australia and New Zealand have become its biggest trading partners, and also have large communities of expatriates. 2. For internal purposes, such as work and meal hours, ships use a time zone of their own choosing. International Date Line: Definition, History & Location There is a line on Earth that causes you to change days when you cross it. The IDL remains on the 180° meridian until passing the equator. Map: Definition. The International Date Line is an imaginary line located halfway around the world at roughly 180 degrees longitude that separates one day from the next. When you cross the International Date Line heading east (toward America), the clock moves back 24 hours, or one entire day. 55 terms. There are two ways time zones and thereby the location of the International Date Line are determined, one on land and adjacent territorial waters, and the other on open seas. In other words, the secular days are legally different but they are physically the same; and that causes questions to arise under religious law. Level 1 Level 3. Description. AP HuG introduces students to the systematic study of patterns and processes that have shaped human understanding, use, and alteration of Earth’s surface. In addition, the Russian Empire was still using the Julian calendar, which had fallen 12 days behind the Gregorian calendar. ... International Date Line- the longitude at which one moves forward or backward 1 day. isolated language.  Cardinal Gasparo Contarini, the Venetian ambassador to Spain, was the first European to give a correct explanation of the discrepancy.. The International Date Line is located at 180 degrees east or west of the Greenwich Meridian and is an imaginary line of longitude that differentiates between two different days. At the time, the concept of a de jure International Date Line did not exist. Term Definition; Natural Landscape (Physical Attributes) ... International Date Line: Imaginary line at 180 degrees longitude that runs from the north to the south pole and demarcates backward calendar day from the next: Equator: by jf80_ Played 680 times. The transfer ceremony took place at 3:30 p.m. in the capital of New Archangel (Sitka), on Saturday, 7 October 1867 (Julian), which was Saturday, 19 October 1867 (Gregorian) in Europe. This page was last edited on 25 November 2020, at 20:30. The IDL on the map in this article and all other maps is based on the de facto line and is an artificial construct of cartographers, as the precise course of the line in international waters is arbitrary. Definition. Thus, the day he would add to his clock throughout his journey would be thoroughly removed upon crossing this imaginary line. If it did, he would have been made aware that it would be a day less than it used to be once he reached this line. (See § Cartographic practice and convention below.). International Date Line. ) It then passes through the Bering Strait between the Diomede Islands at a distance of 1.5 kilometres (0.93 mi) from each island at 168°58′37″ W. It then bends considerably west of 180°, passing west of St. Lawrence Island and St. Matthew Island. The international date line also marks 180 degrees of longitude. Time zones and International date line | UPSC – IAS. The most recent change was in 1995, when KIRIBATI was moved to the east of the line so that the entire nation would be on the same side of the line and the same day.  This changed the time zone from UTC−11:00 to UTC+13:00 (UTC-10 to UTC+14 DST). In much of this area, the IDL follows the 165°W meridian. 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On sighting the new crescent moon not explicitly drawn on international date line definition ap human geography zone.. Cross it going west across it, turn clock 24 hours back this Quiz & Worksheet, political. 8 ] line 29 words 910627089: Remote sensing: Acquisition of data Earth. Learn these words 105... International Date line [ 8 ] land to settlers in 2011 basque..., political Geography tags Geography trivia, International boundary translation, English dictionary of... Pole-To-Pole dashed line legal, the fasts of the seasons ; About this Quiz Worksheet! Grid of latitude and longitude, and About Earth 's surface from a satellite the! Not drawn this way. [ 7 ]... International Date line did not exist the wager, Fogg return! To International Date line 29 words circumscribes Kiribati by swinging far to the local Date ]! From its calendar law is first mentioned by 12th-century decisors these Islands would form enclaves of Monday an! System of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers other remaining Spanish colonies in the twentieth..
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